Warning of looming humanitarian crisis as seafarers’ rights continue to deteriorate
humanitarian crisis as seafarers’ rights continue to deteriorate
图片：《2006 年海事劳工公约》 (MLC) 特别三方委员会 (STC) 警告，疫情对海员权利产生负面影响，将引发人道主义危机，「船员换班情况仍是关键」(Image:’The crew change situation remains critical’ as the Officers of the Special Tripartite Committee (STC) of the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MLC) warn of a humanitarian crisis due to the negative effects of the pandemic on seafarers’ rights.
部分港口国尽管已采取新疫情防控措施，但仍对海员重新实施不合理的大规模隔离和出入境限制，致迫在眉睫的人道主义危机敲响警钟。Warnings of an imminent humanitarian crisis have been made over the reintroduction of disproportionate quarantine and travel restrictions on seafarers by port States, despite the measures in place for Covid infection control.
《2006 年海事劳工公约》 (MLC) 特别三方委员会 (STC) 2 月 11 日在日内瓦的会议上报告说，许多国家在2021 年曾决定放宽影响其国民日常生活的限制，现正再度收紧政策。Many countries that in 2021 made decisions to ease the restrictions affecting the daily life of their citizens are once again tightening their policies, the Officers of the Special Tripartite Committee (STC) of the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MLC) reported at a February 11 meeting in Geneva.
「船员换班情况仍然严峻，而且似乎正在恶化，这危及民众日常生活物资的安全和不间断运送。在世界部分地区，海员在需要立即治疗时被有系统地拒绝送入医疗设施，致新一轮人道主义危机迫在眉睫。」’The crew change situation remains critical and appears to be deteriorating, which jeopardises the safe and uninterrupted delivery of vital supplies. In certain areas of the world, seafarers are systematically denied access to medical facilities when in need of immediate care, causing an imminent renewed humanitarian crisis.’
STC 借此回应国际劳工组织发布的一份报告。该报告揭示疫情对海员权利的负面影响持续，其中包括强烈观察数据显示港口国未能解决船员换班危机。The STC was responding to the publication of an International Labour Organization report, which revealed the continued negative impacts of the pandemic on seafarers’ rights and which contains strong observations on port States’ failures to tackle the crew change crisis.
国际劳工组织实施和建议公约专家委员会长达 185 页的报告中，对许多已承认《海事劳工公约》 (MLC) 的国家，在疫情期间忽视海员权利提出强烈批评。由于多国政府为遏制止新冠病毒变种疫情而采取的新限制措施，致可能违反 MLC 的行为增加，委员会「深表关切」。The 185-page report by the ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations is highly critical of the way many Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) ratifying States have ignored seafarers’ rights during the pandemic. The Committee is ‘deeply concerned’ that violations of the MLC may increase due to new restrictions adopted by governments to contain Covid-19 variants.
报告对海员被拒绝上岸就医表示「深切遗憾」，无论是在紧急情况下，还是患病海员一直被拒下船或将已故海员的尸体移送上岸遣返。It expresses ‘deep regret’ over seafarers being denied medical care ashore, both for urgent cases and consistent refusal to allow sick seafarers to disembark or to allow for the bodies of deceased seafarers to be removed from vessels and repatriated.
不少国家继续以不可抗力为由拒绝海员上岸休假并延长船上时间，甚至批准超过最长 11 个月的合约期限，委员会对此表示遗憾。The Committee further expresses regret over the number of ratifying countries that continue to invoke force majeure as a reason to deny seafarers shore leave and to extend periods of time onboard, even beyond the maximum period of 11 months.
他们强调，「鉴于由疫情开始以来已经过去近两年，『不可抗力』的概念不应被视为剥夺海员权利的有效理由，因为在全球都存在遵守《公约》规定的其他选择。 」They emphasise that ‘given that almost two years have passed since the beginning of the pandemic, the notion of force majeure should not be regarded as a valid reason to deprive seafarers of their rights, as there are options available worldwide to comply with the provisions of the MLC.’
报告建议各国「立即毫不迟疑地采取一切必要措施，全面恢复对海员权利的保障，并充分履行其在 MLC 下的义务”。 」It recommends States should ‘adopt, without delay, all necessary measures to fully restore the protection of seafarers’ rights and fully comply with their obligations under the MLC.’
国际劳工组织报告发表后，STC 委员敦促国际劳工局「继续提高各国政府的意识，包括劳动力供应国、港口国和船旗国当局，其日常生活中所依赖的商品均由海员运送，海员应该受到有尊严的对待，值得尊重，以确保他们能够继续为世界提重要服务。」Following publication of the ILO report, the Officers of the STC urge the International Labour Office ‘to continue to raise awareness among governments, including labour supplying States and port and flag State authorities, that the goods on which we all rely on in our everyday lives are transported by seafarers who should be treated with dignity and respect to ensure that they can continue to provide their vital services to the world’.
STC 是根据 《2006 年海事劳工公约》第 XIII 条成立的三方机构，该审查公约实行和修订公约。委员由国际劳工组织 (ILO) 理事会任命，任期三年。STC is the tripartite body established under Article XIII of the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006, as amended to keep the working of the Convention under continuous review. Officers are appointed by the International Labour Organization (ILO) Governing Body for a period of three years.