技术变革由工人主导 让航运未来更环保、更安全、更高效/Shipping can be Greener, Safer and More Efficient if technological change is worker-led


Two tutors of MNOG involved in the interview for the research.

Seafarers see the prospect of autonomous ships as an opportunity to solve a number of problems in commercial shipping but warn that crew expertise is central to decision-making in a time of technological change, and to make change effective companies and governments need to ensure the technology is transparent and reliable.

此为最近发布有关海上自主水面船舶 (MASS) 的研究结论。研究由韩国海事研究所 (KMI)、国际运输工人联盟 (ITF) 和韩国海洋与渔业技术研究所 (KIMFT) 联合发布,集合一众海员的观点和期望。研究人员共采访 17 名海员和海员代表,了解他们对提高商船船队自动化水平的期望和担忧。香港商船高级船员协会两名自修室导师亦有参与访问。
These are the conclusions of research collating seafarer perspectives and expectations on Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) published jointly by the Korean Maritime Institute (KMI), the International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF) and the Korea Institute of Maritime and Fisheries Technology (KIMFT). Researchers interviewed 17 seafarers and seafarers’ representatives, giving voice to their hopes and fears about increasing levels of automation in the merchant fleet. Two tutors of Merchant Navy Officers’ Guild – Hong Kong also involved in the interview.

「人工智能的发展使完全自主船舶的可能性变得更加真实。」ITF海员部主席David Heindel说。 「尽管大多数海员多年来都不认为它们会成为现实,但事实是,此类船舶已经在测试中。我们可能会看到一个渐进的过程,其中自动化水平将稳步提高。工会并没有认为这是对工作的威胁,反而视为一个让航运更安全的机会,提供技术水平更高、质量更好的工作,使行业处于更好的形势,以应对气候变化等重大问题。」
“Developments in artificial intelligence are making the possibility of fully autonomous ships more real,” said David Heindel, Chair of the ITF’s Seafarers’ Section. “These ships are already being tested, though most seafarers don’t envisage them becoming a practical reality for many years. What we are likely to see is a gradual process where levels of automation steadily increase. Far from considering this a threat to jobs, unions believe it is an opportunity to make shipping safer, with more skilled, better-quality work, putting the industry in a better place to tackle big issues like climate change.”

事实上,研究表明,随着航运业持续向好,对海员技能和能力的需求至少会持续上升至 2040 年,惟不得不承认就业增长率可能会被自动化拖慢。
In fact, the research indicates that demand for seafarers’ skills and competences will keep rising until at least 2040, as the shipping industry continues to boom, although it recognises that the rate of employment growth may ease slightly because of automation.

“The global reality is that we need cleaner, greener ships to curb the industry’s emissions, and if new technology can help with this challenge, we welcome that. But the industry must also deal with the urgent safety and health issues that seafarers face on a day-to-day basis, from basic access to clean drinking water through to having the right skills to be able to work with new and old tech. All of these challenges require workers’ input to resolve them.”

Heindel 指出,面对科技进步和为应对气候危机,转用可持续能源已刻不容缓,航运营运方式正濒临巨大技术变革的紧要关头。他说,海员的观点值得考虑,并确保公平过渡由工人主导,可充分利用他们实际的日常专业知识和经验,保证技术发展不会影响海上工作条件。
Heindel pointed out that we are on the brink of a huge technological change in the way shipping operates – both due to technological advances and the urgent need to shift to sustainable energy sources in response to the climate crisis. He said that we need to take account of seafarers’ perspectives, ensuring a worker-led just transition, and making the most of their practical day-to-day expertise and experience to ensure technology protects decent working conditions at sea.

「这就是此研究报告重要之处。」Heindel说。 「随着各方开始应对船舶营运和规范的变化,及所需的技能,我们必须聆听有望使新技术发挥作用的人发声。」
“That’s why this report is so important,” said Heindel. “As all parties come to grips with the changes required in regulations and ship operation, and the skills that will be needed, it is crucial that we include the voices of those who will be expected to make the new technology work.”

The industry will require a different set of skills and competences so training will become a critical issue. Seafarers interviewed in the research were very positive about learning new skills and the impact these will have on the quality of their work. But they felt the industry is not doing enough to fund training, preparing seafarers for the changes that are coming.

研究报告于2023 年 5 月 31 日提交国际海事组织 (IMO) 海上安全委员会 (MSC) 第 107 届会议。该会议一直关注界定 MASS 的影响,制订相关监管和其他改变。该研究为连日讨论有关偏远地区航行船舶海员所需能力等问题的会议,提供良好基础。
On 31 May 2023, the report was presented to the 107th session of the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), which has been scoping the impact of MASS and the regulatory and other changes that may be needed. The research will provide a sound basis for discussions over the next few days about the competencies required for seafarers navigating ships from remote locations, among other things.

技术变革由工人主导 让航运未来更环保、更安全、更高效/Shipping can be Greener, Safer and More Efficient if technological change is worker-led